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Welcome to Nexpose and the Rapid7 family! This blog is a step by step guide for new Nexpose customers to show you how to set up your first site, start a scan, and get your vulnerability management program under way.

 

First thing’s first: A few definitions in Nexpose:

 

Site: A (usually) physical group of assets; i.e. what you want to scan

 

Scan Template: The things that your scan will look for and how it does discovery; i.e. how you scan

 

Dynamic Asset Group: A filtering of the assets from your scans/sites based on certain criteria like OS, vulnerability, PCI pass/fail, etc.; i.e. how you organize your scan results.

 

Related Resource: [VIDEO] Learn how to setup dynamic asset groups in Nexpose

 

To get started, click on the “create site” button on your Nexpose home screen:

Nexpose Dashboard_img 1.png

Here, give your site a name; as sites are usually logical groupings of your assets, they’re often things like “Boston Office” or “LA Datacenter”

Nexpose Dashboard_img 2.png

For now, don’t worry about the tagging features and the organization/access tabs.

 

Now let’s get into the meat of it. Click into the next section on the top bar, Assets, and enter the assets you want to scan into the “assets” field. You can do this a couple of ways:

  • Simply type in or copy/paste a list of addresses (Nexpose accepts all the common formats)
  • Import a list of assets from an XML file or similar document
  • Create a connection to VMware/AWS/DHCP/ActiveSync and import assets live: We won’t cover this in the scope of this blog post, but you can hook Nexpose directly to the tools above to dynamically import assets into an asset group. Simply go to “connection” and “create connection” to hook them up (you can also read up on this process in the user guide or ask our Customer Success Manager).

Nexpose Dashboard_img 3.png

 

Next let’s go to Credentials. Here you can enter credentials so that Nexpose can authenticate into the devices you’re scanning. Although not required for scanning, we strongly recommend you do authenticated scanning whenever possible; it’ll greatly reduce false positives and give you much more in depth detail on your vulnerabilities, especially for installed software/services.

 

Go to “add credentials” to give a new set of creds a name, select the service you’re using, and input the associated details. You can also test credentials to make sure they’re valid. Once you create this, let’s move on to Templates!

Nexpose Dashboard_img 4.png

Templates are the way that scans are actually run. We have a whole bunch of prebuilt templates in Nexpose, such as for specific compliance scanning (SOX, PCI, etc) or scanning SCADA systems, and you can also copy and customize any template to get into the nuts and bolts of how Nexpose does its magic.

 

For our purposes though, a good scan template to start with is Full Audit without Web Spider; this will discover live assets in the range you gave and scan them for all the relevant vulnerability checks in our database, without trying to crawl through web app scanning (which usually needs some more configuration; if web apps are important for you, learn more about our web application security solutions, and be sure to check out AppSpider).

Nexpose Dashboard_img 5.png

Almost there! The Engines tab lets you select which scan engine you want to do the scan; Nexpose has a distributed architecture that lets you deploy scan engines in remote locations that you don’t have access to from the main console, and scan locally.

 

Your console will come with a scan engine built in, so you can just select “Local scan engine” to launch the scan from your main console.

Nexpose Dashboard_img 6.png

And that’s it! Now you can click “Save and Scan” to launch your scan right away. You can also go to the Schedule section to easily schedule your scans for a later date, or set up a recurring scan schedule.

 

There’s a ton of things you can do to customize your scans and make them more efficient, from custom scan templates to engine pooling and alerts; be sure to reach out to your Customer Success Manager for any questions or check out the Nexpose Training options!

anowak

Patch Tuesday, October 2016

Posted by anowak Employee Oct 11, 2016

October continues a long running trend with Microsoft’s products where the majority of bulletins (6) address remote code execution (RCE) followed by elevation of privilege (3) and information disclosure (1). All of this month’s critical bulletins are remote code execution vulnerabilities, affecting a variety of products and platforms including Edge, Internet Explorer, Exchange, Microsoft Office, Office Services and Web Apps, Sharepoint as well as Windows (client and server).

 

While Microsoft continues actively working on resolving these issues, as witnessed in the overwhelming number of critical RCE bulletins, there is an ongoing battle in which they are unable to permanently address these vulnerabilities, which predominantly affect the consumer applications listed above. Unfortunately, this leads to one of the single largest attack vectors, consumers.

 

This month Microsoft resolves 49 vulnerabilities across 10 bulletins. For consumers MS16-118, MS16-119, MS16-120, MS16-121 and MS16-127 are the bulletins to watch out for, addressing 38 vulnerabilities. For server users no particular bulletin draws immediate attention enabling the majority of server admins to roll out patches at a fairly leisurely pace. Unfortunately, at this time 4 vulnerabilities addressed by MS16-118 (CVE-2016-3298), MS16-119 (CVE-2016-7189), MS16-120 (CVE-2016-3393), MS16-121 (CVE-2016-7193), MS16-126 (CVE-2016-3298) are known to have been be exploited in the wild.

 

Users should be wary of untrusted sources as maliciously crafted content could allow an attacker to remotely execute code in-order to gain the same rights as their user account. The best protection against these threats is to patch systems as quickly as possible. Administrators, be sure to review this month’s bulletins and in accordance with your specific configuration, prioritize your deployment of this months’ updates. At a minimum, ensure to patch systems affected by critical bulletins (MS16-118, MS16-119, MS16-120, MS16-122 and MS16-127).

 

This year we've made many enhancements to the configuration policy assessment capabilities in Nexpose, including adding 4 new reports and NIST 800-53 controls mapping. Last week we unveiled a new and improved user interface for the Policy Manager, providing you with more information on your compliance position at your fingertips.

 

With the new interface, you can quickly see how compliant you are overall, understand where you need to focus, and drill down to get detailed policy results. But it's not just the look-and-feel that's improved, we've also been working on making the Policy Manager more responsive and scalable, enabling larger datasets to load much faster.

 

What's New

The new Policy View lets you see at a glance all the policies you've scanned for and the overall percentage of compliance across your network. Clicking on the number of Scanned Policies dynamically filters the table below to only show policies with assessment results. Sort the table by Rule Compliance to quickly see which policies are the least compliant, or by Compliance Trend to see which policies are heading in the wrong direction.

 

 

Clicking on a policy takes you to a detailed view showing the number of scanned assets and the overall level of compliance. You can drill into a particular rule to see more information including the assessment results of each scanned asset and remediation steps - giving you all the information you need to take action.

 

 

The new interface also includes a new Asset view where you can see which assets are the most and least compliant, when they were last scanned, and whether they're improving their compliance position or not.

 

 

Like with policies, clicking on an asset takes you to a detailed view of the asset showing the number of assessed rules and the overall level of compliance. You can drill into a particular rule to see more information including whether the asset is compliant with the rule, proof for why the rule passed or failed, and remediation steps.

 

 

Auditing your systems for compliance with secure configuration policies like CIS, DISA STIGs, and USBCG is an important part of any effective security and compliance program. If you haven't tried automating this process using the Policy Manager in Nexpose yet, or haven't tried it in a while, then now is the perfect time.

At the beginning of summer, we announced some major enhancements to Nexpose including Live Monitoring, Threat Exposure Analytics, and Liveboards, powered by the Insight Platform. These capabilities help organizations using our vulnerability management solution to spot changes as it happens and prioritize risks for remediation.

 

We've also been working on a new way for organizations to get a real time view into their exposures. Rapid7 Insight Agents (Beta), along with our active scanning and Adaptive Security capabilities, allow you to monitor your network and endpoints for risks. This week we're opening up this new capability to all Nexpose Enterprise and Ultimate users.

 

5 Reasons why you should try Rapid7 Insight Agents (Beta)

 

 

1. Get a live view into exposures

Our agents automatically collect data from your endpoints and seamless integrates it into Nexpose Now, so your Liveboards are always populated with real time data without the need to hit refresh or rescan.

 

2. Endpoint security for remote workers

Remote workers rarely, or in some cases never, connect to the corporate network and often miss scheduled scan windows. Our lightweight agents can be deployed to monitor risks posed by the mobile workforce.

 

3. Eliminate restricted asset blindspots

Some assets are just too critical to the business to be actively scanned. With our agents, you'll get visibility into assets with strict scanning restrictions, while removing the need to manage credentials to gain access.

 

Rapid7_Exposure_Analytics (1).png

 

4. Track and manage agents centrally

Monitor the status of your agents from your Liveboards to identify any discrepancies or errors that require attention. You can also see when was the last data collection and which agents are currently online or offline.

 

5. One agent to rule them all

The same agent is used for all solutions on the Insight Platform, including Nexpose Now and InsightIDR, so you only need a single endpoint agent for both vulnerability management and endpoint threat detection.

 

To start using Rapid7 Insight Agents, you'll need to log in to Nexpose and opt-in to Nexpose Now. If you have already opted in to Nexpose Now, click on Manage Agents on one of the Agents Liveboard cards. This takes you to the Agents page where you can download the Windows agent installer and monitor your agents.

 

All of our innovations are built side-by-side with our customers through the Rapid7 Voice program. Please contact your Rapid7 CSM or sales representative if you're interested in helping us make our products better.

At the beginning of summer, we announced some major enhancements to Nexpose including Live Monitoring, Threat Exposure Analytics, and Liveboards, powered by the Insight Platform. These capabilities help organizations using our vulnerability management solution to spot changes as it happens and prioritize risks for remediation.

 

We've also been working on a new workflow tool to streamline the next part of the job - fixing exposures. Remediation Workflow (Beta) allows you to convert exposures into vulnerability remediation projects for assigning and tracking progress. This week we're opening up this new capability to all Nexpose Enterprise and Ultimate users.

 

5 Reasons why you should try the Remediation Workflow (Beta)

 

image2016-9-23 13-56-1.png

 

1. Get from find to fix, fast

Say you spot an exposure that needs to be fixed from your Liveboard. With Remediation Workflow, you can create a project straight from the analytics card and assign it to the right person with all the context they need to get the job done. No need to waste time pulling data from multiple places or logging into another tool to create a ticket.

 

2. Prioritize what's important

Nexpose automatically takes into account the likelihood of a real world attack and the assets your company cares about when prioritizing vulnerabilities for remediation, so you can be confident you're fixing the right things. You'll also get insight into the impact of each project and individual task on reducing risk across your organizations.

 

image2016-9-26 12-53-14.png

 

3. Patch all the (critical) things

Create and assign an ongoing vulnerability remediation project that dynamically updates with critical exposures on business critical exposures as soon as appear. You can combine this with Live Monitoring, which automatically detects and assesses changes in your network, to create a live workflow that does away with manual scanning and reporting.

 

4. Talk the same language

Like Nexpose's popular Top Remediations report, Remediation Workflow breaks down tasks using IT speak, not security speak. With Nexpose Now's powerful analytics engine, you can streamline communications by providing IT teams with relevant information on what needs to be fixed, including remediation steps and asset details.

 

image2016-9-23 15-26-11.png

 

5. See progress as it happens

Quickly see the status of all vulnerability remediation projects or filter by owner to get insight into progress made by each team. Remediators can choose to update the status of tasks as they make progress or in bulk at the end of a project. You can track projects until completion in real-time, then automatically verify the fixes during the next scan.

 

To start using Remediation Workflow, simply log in to Nexpose and opt-in to Nexpose Now. If you have already opted in to Nexpose Now, you'll automatically see the Projects icon appear in the left navigation menu.

 

All of our innovations are built side-by-side with our customers through the Rapid7 Voice program. Please contact your Rapid7 CSM or sales representative if you're interested in helping us make our products better.

Rapid7’s Incident Detection and Response and Vulnerability Management solutions, InsightIDR and Nexpose, now integrate to provide visibility and security detection across assets and the users behind them. Combining the pair provides massive time savings and simplifies incident investigations by highlighting risk across your network ecosystem without writing queries or digging through logs.

 

Nexpose proactively identifies & prioritizes weak points on your network, while InsightIDR helps find unknown threats with user behavior analytics, prioritizes where to look with SIEM capabilities, and combines endpoint detection and visibility to leave attackers with nowhere to hide. Let’s look at three specific benefits: (1) putting a "face" to your vulnerabilities, (2) automatically placing vulnerable assets under greater scrutiny, and (3) flagging users that use actively exploitable assets.

 

Vulnerabilities-User-v2.PNG

 

User Context for Your Vulnerabilities

InsightIDR integrates with your existing network & security infrastructure to create a baseline of your users’ activity. By correlating all activity to the users behind them, you’re alerted of attacks notoriously hard to detect, such as compromised credentials and lateral movement.

 

When InsightIDR ingests the results of your Nexpose vulnerability scans, vulnerabilities are added to each user’s profile. When you search by employee name, asset, or IP address, you get a complete look at their user behavior:

 

InsightIDR-User-Page-v2.gif

 

How this saves you time:

  • See who is affected by what vulnerability – this helps you get buy-in to remediate a vulnerability by putting a face and context on a vulnerability. (“The CFO has this vulnerability on their laptop – let's prioritize remediation.”)
  • Have instant context on the user(s) behind an asset, so you accelerate incident investigations and can see if the attacker laterally moved beyond that endpoint.
  • Proactively reduce your exposed attack surface, by verifying key players are not vulnerable.

 

Automatic Security Detection for Critical Assets

In Nexpose, you can dynamically tag assets as critical. For example, they may be in the IP range of the DMZ or contain a particular software package/service unique to domain controllers. Combined with InsightIDR, that context extends to the users that access these assets.

 

When InsightIDR ingests scan results, assets tagged as critical are labeled in InsightIDR as Restricted Assets. This integration helps you automatically place vulnerable assets under greater detection scrutiny.

 

Some examples of alerts for Restricted Assets:

  • First authentication from an unfamiliar source asset: InsightIDR doesn't just alert on the IP address, but whenever possible, shows the exact users involved.
  • An unauthorized user attempts to log-in: This can include a contractor or compromised employee attempting to access a financial server.
  • A unique or malicious process hash is run on the asset: A single Insight Agent deployed on your endpoints performs both vulnerability scanning and endpoint detection. Our vision is to reliably find intruders earlier in the attack chain, which includes identifying every process running on your endpoints. We run these process hashes against the wisdom of 50 virus scanners to identify malicious processes, as well as identify unique processes for further investigation.
  • Lateral movement (both local and domain): Once inside your organization’s network, intruders typically run a network scan to identify high-value assets. They then laterally move across the network, leaving behind backdoors & stealing higher privilege credentials.
  • Endpoint log deletion: After compromising an asset, attackers look to delete system logs in order to hide their tracks. This is a high-confidence indicator of compromise.
  • Anomalous admin activity, including privilege escalation: Once gaining access to an asset or endpoint, attackers use privilege escalation exploits to gain admin access, allowing them to dump creds or attempt pass-the-hash. We identify and alert on anomalous admin activity across your ecosystem.

 

Identifying Users that Use Exploitable Assets

Many Nexpose customers purchase Metasploit Pro to validate their vulnerabilities and test if assets can be actively exploited in the wild. As an extension of the critical asset functionality above, customers that own all three products can automatically tag assets that are exploited by Metasploit as critical, and thus mark these as restricted assets in InsightIDR. This ensures that assets which are easy to breach are placed under higher scrutiny until the exploitable vulnerabilities are patched.

 

InsightIDR-Asset-Info.PNG

Configuring the InsightIDR-Nexpose Integration

If you have InsightIDR & Nexpose, setting up the Event Source is easy.

 

1. In Nexpose, setup a Global Admin.

2. In InsightIDR, on the top right Data Collection tab -> Setup Event Source -> Add Event Source.

 

Rapid7-Event-Source-Nexpose.png

 

3. Add the information about the Nexpose Console (Server IP & Port).

4. Add the credentials of the newly created Global Admin.

 

And you’re all set! If you have any questions, reach out to your Customer Success Manager or Support. Don’t have InsightIDR and want to learn how the technology relentlessly hunts threats? Check out an on-demand 20 minute demo here.

 

Nathan Palanov contributed to this post.

Finding the CISCO EXTRABACON vulnerability (CVE-2016-6366) on your network with Nexpose

Recently, our research team recently wrote an extensive blog on the EXTRABACON exploit (finally a name that we can all get behind). Our research with Project Sonar showed that a large number of devices and organizations are still exposed to this vulnerability, even though a patch has been released; and today I thought we’d get pragmatic and show how you can measure your exposure using Nexpose vulnerability management.

 

Because Nexpose Live Monitoring is always-on, we allow you to automatically collect, monitor, and analyze your network for new and existing risk, including EXTRABACON.  And when you are integrated with Rapid7 SONAR research (see, tying it all together folks), you immediately identify these risks now, and even if they enter the network later.

 

There are a few ways to do it. Let’s take a look.

 

Use Nexpose Dynamic Asset Groups. Here you can create a filter to show you every asset that contains the relevant CVE (in this case, CVE-2016-6366):

(Note: To avoid typos it may be easier to do “Contains” instead of “is” and just include the final number.)

 

This asset group is dynamic, so it will automatically update after scans. When the number of assets reaches 0, that means you’re done!

 

You can also automatically tag every asset under that filter as highly critical, so that their risk scores get amplified and they get pushed to the top of your remediation reports.

 

To help visualize the impact of the vulnerability, you can also use the LiveBoards in Nexpose to filter cards by the vulnerability to see which newly discovered assets have the vuln, as well as what % of your assets are affected. Simply use the filter: asset.vulnerability.title CONTAINS "cve-2016-6366"

 

Finally, we’re working on a Metasploit module for the exploit as well; Want to see how vulnerable your organization is to EXTRABACON? Download a free trial of our vulnerability scanner today!

anowak

Patch Tuesday, September 2016

Posted by anowak Employee Sep 13, 2016

September continues a long running trend with Microsoft’s products where the majority of bulletins (10) address remote code execution (RCE) followed by elevation of privilege (2) and information disclosure (2). All of this month’s critical bulletins are remote code execution vulnerabilities, affecting a variety of products and platforms including Edge, Internet Explorer, Exchange, Microsoft Office, Office Services and Web Apps, Sharepoint as well as Windows (client and server).

 

While Microsoft continues actively working on resolving these issues, as witnessed in the overwhelming number of critical RCE bulletins, there is an ongoing battle in which they are unable to permanently address these vulnerabilities, which predominantly affect the consumer applications listed above. Unfortunately, this leads to one of the single largest attack vectors, consumers.

 

This month Microsoft resolves 94 vulnerabilities across 14 bulletins. For consumers MS16-104, MS16-105, MS16-106, MS16-107, MS16-115 and MS16-117 are the bulletins to watch out for, addressing 60 vulnerabilities. For server users MS16-108 is the bulletins to watch out for, addressing 21 vulnerabilities. As pointed out by todb, Senior Research Manager at Rapid7, “This update is of particular interest because it patches eleven remote code execution bugs in Oracle Outside In, a rather massive file format parsing library that ships with Exchange and is responsible for parsing a wide variety of file types…  it looks like the Exchange server itself can be compromised merely by e-mailing the target organization a maliciously crafted file.” Unfortunately, at this time one vulnerability addressed by MS16-104 (CVE-2016-3551) is known to have been exploited in the wild.

 

Users should be wary of untrusted sources as maliciously crafted content could allow an attacker to remotely execute code in-order to gain the same rights as their user account. The best protection against these threats is to patch systems as quickly as possible. Administrators, be sure to review this month’s bulletins and in accordance with your specific configuration, prioritize your deployment of this months’ updates. At a minimum, ensure to patch systems affected by critical bulletins (MS16-104 MS16-105 MS16-106 MS16-107 MS16-108 MS16-116 MS16-117).

 

Don’t Create Blind Spots

As a consultant for a security company like Rapid7, I get to see many of the processes and procedures being used in Vulnerability Management programs across many types of companies. I must admit, in the last few years there have been great strides in program maturity across the industry, but there is always room for improvement. Today I am here to help you with one of these improvements – avoiding asset risk blind spots.

 

One of the more common “broken” processes that I still come across relates to the methods and procedures for managing those assets which are too easily ignored… Excluded Assets. These assets are the “black sheep” of vulnerability and risk management, due to the inability to assess risk on assets you cannot “see.”  There are valid reasons to create asset exclusions, but this must be managed with appropriate process and procedure to avoid creating inadvertent blind spots during your vulnerability assessment.

 

Creating Asset Exclusions

Nexpose provides two options for excluding assets from vulnerability scans. This capability is critical in a mature vulnerability scanning tool due to the requirements of operational and risk management teams. These asset exclusion options are permanent configurations that allow for persistent asset exclusion. The permanence of these options are where vulnerability management program processes seem to break down due to the lack of cyclical management and review procedures.

 

Let’s begin by reviewing these asset exclusion configuration options:

 

  1. Global Asset Exclusion: Administration -> Global -> Manage -> Asset Exclusions (Permanent)

Vulnerability Management Global Asset Exclusions

  1. Site Asset Exclusion: Site -> Assets -> Exclude (Permanent)

Vulnerability Management Site Asset Exclusions

One of the primary reasons that operations teams, system owners, and risk management teams request Nexpose administrators to add certain assets to these exclusions is to address perceived or real availability impacts. During my career in vulnerability management, there have been times during the lifecycle of vulnerability scanning tools in which specific vulnerability tests can cause adverse impacts to certain assets with specific identified vulnerabilities. These asset exclusion options provide a way to avoid these specific impacts.

 

Managing Asset Exclusions

The break in the process is that once an asset (IP address) is placed into these exclusion lists, they are usually not revisited… ever. No, really. Set it, and forget it. Vulnerability management is not like cooking a rotisserie chicken, you can’t just set it and forget it. Mature vulnerability management programs involve cyclical processes which involve assessment, reporting, remediation/mitigation, and verification (reassessment). I know the question you have now is… “How can we apply that same cyclical process to manage asset exclusions?

 

Winner, Winner, Chicken Dinner!

Following this 4 step cyclical process can help remove this blind spot in your vulnerability management program caused by unmanaged asset exclusions:

 

  1. Assessment – Identify the asset to be excluded and assess the risk of removing the asset from vulnerability scanning. Ensure that the risk assessment documentation includes the data which resides on the asset, controls that are in place to protect the asset, and the reason that the exclusion request was created.
  2. Reporting – Run periodic reports of all assets which are currently excluded from vulnerability scans, both global and site level exclusions. Ensure that the reason for the exclusion and date the asset was added for exclusion is tracked (excel, database, etc).
  3. Remediation/Mitigation – Identify if the reason given to exclude an asset is something related to specific vulnerability tests in the vulnerability scans. Look into creating a scan template which excludes the specific vulnerability test, and remove the asset from exclusion. You may find that there are “classes” of assets which are impacted by the same (or related) vulnerability tests and these can be managed with a reasonable number of ‘custom’ scan templates.
  4. Verification (Monthly, Quarterly, Annually) – Does this asset still need to be excluded from vulnerability management scans? Apply the same risk assessment provided in step
  • Repeat Step 1

Put It into Practice

Can it get any easier? These simple 4 steps can add a critical process to address the possible “blind spots” that unmanaged asset exclusions can add to your enterprise. Ensuring that your vulnerability management program has a cyclical process to address vulnerability scanning asset exclusions will increase the accuracy of your risk management reporting for your company and reduce the overall risk exposure of unknown vulnerabilities.

 

Example SQL Query:

SELECT ds.name AS site, dst.target AS excluded

FROM dim_site_target as dst

JOIN dim_site ds USING (site_id)

WHERE included = false

ORDER BY ds.name, dst.target;

 

Output:

site

excluded

Affiliate: Network 1

  1. 10.0.0.1-10.0.0.254

Company: CIS Benchmarks

  1. 10.0.0.1-10.0.0.254

 

Want to help improve Asset Exclusion management in Nexpose?

 

Rapid7 offers a way for customers and clients to provide feedback on product “IDEAS” through our IDEA Portal on our Support site. It is an interactive process involving posting an idea, promoting it through “up voting”, and then finally having it included into the product through a release. An Idea has been submitted for this very topic and it can be found at the following link:

https://rapid7support.force.com/customers/ideas/viewIdea.apexp?id=087140000003FG O [customer login required]. Don’t have a login? Use the comments on this blog to share your thoughts.

 

If you would like to see us include an improvement in our vulnerability scanner to address this process in your Vulnerability Management program, spread the word and UpVote the Idea!

Vulnerabilities are not created equal, not when there are so many dependencies, not only around the vuln itself, but it’s applicability to your business. Sure, CVSS helps, a little, but ultimately what it has left us all with is a long list of 9s and 10s (or ‘high’ alerts) and zero visibility into what to actually fix first. Ideally your vulnerability management program is prioritizing vulnerabilities by business impact, not just CVSS.

 

In 2009 Rapid7 acquired Metasploit because we knew it was important to not only test attacker methods on your own systems to uncover security issues, but to understand attacker behavior and mentality. Metasploit not only helps companies think like the attacker, but ultimately it helps Rapid7 Nexpose bring that same mentality to vulnerability management. This expertise in the attacker mindset has allowed our customers to build vulnerability management programs that prioritize risk by the likelihood of exploitability, not just prioritizing risk by a generic risk score.

 

Which Vulnerabilities Will an Attacker be Excited to See?

 

After the Metasploit acquisition, we decided to do something unique with our risk score – focus on its relative danger to actually being used in an attack. Essentially, which vulnerabilities would an attacker be excited to see? These are the ones you want to fix first! (Bummed out hackers are good hackers.)

 

As a refresher, our risk score is 1-1000 (much more granular than CVSS) and because of Metasploit and our attacker mentality it is based on the following:

  • CVSS Score
  • Malware exposure – what malware kits have been written for this vuln?
  • Exploit exposure – what exploits have been written, and how easy are they to use (bonus points for being in Metasploit!)
  • Age – If a vuln came out in 1999, that’s a lot more time for bad guys to play with it and figure out ways to use it

 

Nexpose users now get a prioritized list of vulnerabilities that are truly the most important to fix first, and de-prioritize some vulnerabilities that might have a high CVSS score in a passive scanning tool to later in the list because it simply would not easily be used in an attack. The way our customers say it, “Fix the most vulnerable vulnerabilities first!”

 

 

When a 7.5 is Higher than a 9

It’s been seven years since we introduced our vulnerability scoring methodology to the vulnerability management industry and now there’s ample evidence supporting the method - beyond the thousands of Nexpose customers - notably a research study done by Dan Geer and Michael Roytman that showed if a vulnerability has a Metasploit exploit available for it, it is much more likely to be used in an attack.

 

We can also see evidence in our own data. Take this vulnerability for instance:

CIFS vuln Metasploit - recreate2.PNG

This default password vuln got a CVSS score of 7.5; high, but certainly not a 9 or 10. Yet, it’s a lot nastier than that score implies; it was discovered in 1996, giving attackers plenty of time to come up with ways to use it.

 

And if you click on the Metasploit symbol you can see attackers have plenty of exploit kits available for these vulnerabilities:

If an attacker saw this vulnerability during reconnaissance, he’d have a whole menu of free tools to use to take advantage of it; why would they waste their time with a new CVSS 10 when the keys have already been crafted for him? Hence, our risk score for this vuln is 904, higher than quite a few CVSS 10s.

 

The bottom line? If you were going just by CVSS, this easy-to-exploit vulnerability would have been lost in the pile.

 

How is your vulnerability management program going beyond CVSS to prioritize vulnerabilities? Let us know in the comments, and if you haven’t yet, give Nexpose a spin!

 

Want to see Nexpose in action? Check out this on-demand demo!

The new version of Reporting Data Model (1.3.1) allows Nexpose users to create CSV reports providing information about credential status of their assets, i.e. whether credentials provided by the user (global or site specific) allowed successful login to the asset during a specific scan.

 

Credential Status Per Service

The new Reporting Data Model version contains fact_asset_scan_service enhanced with the new column containing the information about credential status for an asset per service during the particular scan. Credential status information is provided for five services: SNMP (version 1, 2c and 3), SSH, Telnet, CIFS and DCE Endpoint Resolution.

For these services the following credential statuses can be reported:

 

Credential statusRelevant Services
No credentials supplied

SNMP, SSH, Telnet, CIFS, DCE Endpoint Resolution

Login failedSNMP, SSH, Telnet, CIFS, DCE Endpoint Resolution
Login successfulSNMP, SSH, Telnet, CIFS, DCE Endpoint Resolution
Allowed elevation of privilegesSSH
RootSSH and Telnet
Login as local adminCIFS, DCE Endpoint Resolution

 

Newly added dimension dim_asset_service_credential can be used to report on the most recent credential statuses asserted for services on an asset in the last scan performed on this asset.

Both fact_asset_scan_service and dim_asset_service_credential can be joined with the newly added dim_credential_status which provides the above statuses in a human readable form. Examples of queries which can be used to report the credential status per asset per service can be found in the document listed at the bottom.

 

Credential status across services

Nexpose users can now create reports providing the snapshot of credential statuses for an asset, i.e. information about credential status for an asset aggregated across all services discovered in the scan. The newly enhanced fact_asset and fact_asset_scan now report the following statuses:

 

Credential statusDescription
No credentials suppliedOne or more services for which credential status is reported were detected in the scan, but there were no credentials supplied for any of them.
All credentials failedOne or more services for which credential status is reported were detected in the scan, and all credentials supplied for these services failed to authenticate.

Credentials partially successful

At least two of the four services for which credential status is reported were detected in the scan, and for some services the provided credentials failed to authenticate, but for at least one there was a successful authentication.

All credentials successful

One or more services for which credential status is reported were detected in the scan, and for all of these services for which credentials were supplied authentication with provided credentials was successful.

N/ANone of the five applicable services (SNMP, SSH, Telnet, CIFS, DCE Endpoint Resolution) were discovered in the scan.

 

Both these facts can be joined with the new dim_aggregated_credential_status which provides the above statuses in a human readable form. For examples of queries please refer to the following document:

 

SQL Query Export Example: Credential status

We build Nexpose to help security practitioners get from find to fix faster. With the launch of Nexpose Now, Rapid7 delivered Liveboards to help you know what's weak in your world right now. Liveboards combine your live threat exposure data, powerful analytics and intuitive querying so you can spend less time compiling data, and more time improving your security program. Liveboards, powered by the Rapid7 Insight Platform, continuously deliver improvements from our engineers to your fingertips and without maintenance effort on your part.

 

We know its hard to keep up with change; so we'll be sharing tips, tricks and new capabilities in right-sized blog posts. In this post, you'll learn one way Liveboards can do heavy lifting for you: customizing and tailoring your dashboards to match your world.

 

Time for some action

Nexpose Now Liveboards provide visibility into what is weak and the power to dive into your data, enabling you to take action. Dozens of built-for-purpose Cards are available in Liveboards with more being released on a regular basis. Cards help you focus on what matters in an easy to understand and easy to act on form. Spending less time in Excel pivot tables means more time on the actual work of driving remediation.

 

Rapid7_Exposure_Analytics_threecards.png

 

Consider the three Cards above. Driving Assets with Expired SSL Certificates to zero is a worthy goal, as is minimizing Assets Running Obsolete Software. But, these metrics may require refinement before taking action in your organization. If your remediation teams work on a site-by-site basis, understanding the percentage of assets running obsolete operating systems is interesting but not sufficient to drive remediation. When you're trying to get to fix faster, getting to action in your remediation teams is critical. We could help our cause by breaking down our data into parcels the remediation teams understand.

 

Dig a bit deeper by clicking on the Expand Card link and we're immersed in Asset data. Some remediation teams have ownership of Assets of a specific operating system type. An easy way to start is by narrowing down by OS family.

 

assets-by-os-custom-query.gif

 

That query looks useful! Since you've spent time crafting it, maybe you want to save it and use it again later? Here I show how to save a query called "FreeBSD Assets" and then create a copy of the Assets Running Obsolete OS Card but only for FreeBSD Assets.

 

assets-by-os-custom-query-save.gif

 

Repeat this process for each of the OS's supported in your organization and you arrive at a powerful comparison. Here we see percentages of Assets running obsolete operating systems by OS family. With this view, you can quickly see differences and get a much better sense of what is weak: perhaps the Solaris systems need some attention.

 

comparecontrast.png

 

Do you want more?

Give this technique a try with your own data. I used a simple example of filtering by OS, but you can easily build refined queries and Cards to make Nexpose work for you. Some other ideas you could try:

  • Compare KPI on new assets discovered across Sites or Asset Groups
  • Create individual Dashboards for individual teams or Sites

Let us know if you find useful ways to compare and share them here.

 

Nathan Palanov

In July, we added National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publication 800-53r4 controls mappings to version 2.0.2 of the reporting data model for SQL Query Export reports. NIST 800-53 is a publication that develops a set of security controls standards that are designed to aid organizations in protecting themselves from an array of threats.

 

What does this mean for you? Well, now you can measure your compliance against these controls by writing SQL queries. For example, say you want to know how many assets fail or comply with a certain control:

SELECT ncm.control_name,
       SUM(fr.noncompliant_assets) AS noncompliant_assets,
       SUM(fr.compliant_assets) AS compliant_assets
FROM fact_policy_rule fr
   JOIN dim_policy_rule_cce_platform_nist_control_mapping ncm ON ncm.rule_id = fr.rule_id AND ncm.rule_scope = fr.scope
WHERE ncm.control_name LIKE ‘AC-%’
GROUP BY ncm.control_name
ORDER BY ncm.control_name ASC

 

Screen Shot 2016-08-01 at 2.07.36 PM.jpg

 

Or this example shows how you can list your least compliant policy rules (most failed assets) and which CCEs and controls they map to:

SELECT p.title AS policy_name,
       dpr.title AS rule_name,
       ncm.cce_item_id,
       ncm.control_name,
       fr.noncompliant_assets,
       fr.compliant_assets
FROM fact_policy_rule fr
   JOIN dim_policy_rule dpr USING (rule_id, scope, policy_id)
   JOIN dim_policy p USING (policy_id, scope)
   JOIN dim_policy_rule_cce_platform_nist_control_mapping ncm ON ncm.rule_id = fr.rule_id AND ncm.rule_scope = fr.scope
ORDER BY fr.noncompliant_assets DESC

 

Screen Shot 2016-08-01 at 1.52.02 PM.jpg

You can learn more about SQL Query Export here and Nexpose's built-in policy reports here.

anowak

Patch Tuesday, August 2016

Posted by anowak Employee Aug 9, 2016

August continues an on-going trend with Microsoft’s products, the majority of bulletins (5) address remote code execution (RCE) followed by elevation of privilege (2), security feature bypass (1) and information disclosure (1). All of this month’s critical bulletins are remote code execution vulnerabilities, affecting a variety of products and platforms including Edge, Internet Explorer, Microsoft Office, Office Services and Web Apps, Sharepoint as well as Windows (client and server).

 

Looking back at the last year of security bulletins, a resounding trend has emerged and continues to be prominent; the majority of these bulletins address RCE. While Microsoft continues actively working on resolving these issues, as witnessed in the overwhelming number of critical RCE bulletins, there is an ongoing battle in which they are unable to permanently address these vulnerabilities, which predominantly affect consumer applications such as Edge, Internet Explorer, Microsoft Office and .NET. Unfortunately, this leads to one of the single largest attack vectors, consumers.

 

This month Microsoft resolves 27 vulnerabilities across 9 bulletins. For consumers MS16-095, MS16-096, MS16-097 and MS16-102 are the bulletins to watch out for, addressing 14 vulnerabilities. For server users, no particular bulletin draws immediate attention enabling the majority of server admins to roll out patches at a fairly leisure pace. Fortunately, at this time no vulnerabilities are known to be publicly disclosed or have been exploited in the wild.

 

Users should be wary of untrusted sources as maliciously crafted content could allow an attacker to remotely execute code in order to gain the same rights as your user account. Your best protection against these threats is to patch your systems as quickly as possible. Administrators, be sure to review this month’s bulletins and in accordance with your specific configuration, prioritize your deployment of this months’ updates. At a minimum, ensure to patch systems affected by critical bulletins (MS16-095, MS16-096, MS16-097, MS16-099 and MS16-102).

 

This blog shows how to use the power of LogEntries Search and Analytics to monitor your Nexpose installation. LogEntries has joined the Rapid7 family and offers several powerful capabilities to search, analyze, monitor and alert on your Nexpose installation. LogEntries is also super easy to set up and maintain. I spent about five minutes getting it running. The Nexpose engineering team made it very easy by enabling the log4j appender in every installation of Nexpose. All you have to do is follow these steps to get up and running.

 

Set up your free trial

Set up a free trial on LogEntries (https://logentries.com/) by clicking on the "Start a Free Trial" button:

createaccount.png

 

Generate tokens for system logging

You can create logging tokens by clicking on "Add a Log" and choosing the "Java" icon in the "Libraries" section and then click on "Create Log Token" at the bottom of the screen. Create as many as you want appenders (see next step). You can have an appender for every Nexpose log if you want:

 

addalog.png

createlogtoken.png

Configure Nexpose Logging

In your Nexpose installation, copy the logentries appenders in the console's logging configuration located in /opt/rapid7/nexpose/nsc/conf/logging.xml (near the bottom of the file) and paste them into the user-log-settings.xml file in the same directory. Make sure to replace the ${logentries-*-token} with the actual token from your logentries account that you created above Each appender can have it's own token so they can be tracked using different logs in logentries. Here is an example:

 

  <appender name="le-nsc" class="com.logentries.logback.LogentriesAppender">

     <Token>123725d5-10df-4aa7-b683-3e8c71251b2c</Token>

     <Debug>False</Debug>

     <Ssl>False</Ssl>

     <facility>USER</facility>

     <encoder>

       <pattern>${logFormat}</pattern>

     </encoder>

   </appender>

 

 

Unlock the power of LogEntries

Restart Nexpose and you will see logs flowing into your LogEntries account. Now you can start using all the great features of LogEntries including Live Tail, Saved Queries, Alerts, and Tagging to manage your Nexpose console. Here are some examples:

 

Initial Log View

This view will appear as soon as you click on the Log Set that you want to view. In my case, "Demo Set" is the log set that I used when creating my account and hooking up Nexpose. From here you can search and filter to find log entries of interest:

 

viewthelog.png

 

Live Tailing

Live Tailing is a great feature that allows you to debug or monitor issues as they are happening:

 

livetail.png


Creating Tags and Alerts

Tags and alerts allow you to label specific log lines based on regular expressions and also alert if anomalies occur:

alert.png

Wrap Up

Also check out how to do the same thing with Metasploit Pro in Securing Your Metasploit Logs. I hope you have found this helpful and please share any feedback such as alerts, dashboards, or other useful tips and tricks that you have found when using Nexpose with LogEntries.

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